Part Two (1947-2000)

 by Kenneth Lisenbee


1947    Paul Bowles composes music for the Max Ernst and Alexander Calder episodes of Hans Richter's surrealist film Dreams That Money Can Buy. In March 1947, Jane and Paul Bowles visit Cuba. The American artist Maurice Grosser paints a portrait of Jane Bowles. Paul Bowles wrote in his autobiography Without Stopping about one dream which changed his life and influenced his decision to leave New York and America and move to Tangier: "One balmy night in May [1947], asleep in my quiet bedroom, I had a dream. In the late afternoon sunlight I walked slowly through complex and tunneled streets. As I reviewed it, lying there, sorry to have left the place behind, I realized with a jolt that the magic city really existed. It was Tangier."

Paul Bowles receives an advance from Doubleday in New York for a novel and decides to travel to Morocco. On July 1, 1947, leaving Jane Bowles alone at the apartment on Tenth Street in New York City, Paul Bowles departs New York on the cargo ship SS Ferncape, accompanied by his friend Gordon Sanger, with the intention of returning to New York for the planned premiere of the Concerto on October 31. He continues to work on the orchestration during the voyage, but the premiere is postponed. On the transatlantic voyage to Casablanca, Morocco, Bowles writes the short story "Pages from Cold Point". Jane Bowles sublets the apartment and moves to Treetops, Libby Holman's estate in Connecticut; she also ends her affair with Helvetia.

In August 1947,  Paul Bowles moves to F�s and checks into the Palais Jama�, where he begins work on his first novel The Sheltering Sky. Paul writes a letter to Jane Bowles in New York to come to Tangier. In September 1947, Paul Bowles moves from a hotel on the beach front in Tangier to a two-room cottage with fireplace and an ocean view in an outbuilding of the Hotel El Farhar on the Old Mountain. He buys a parrot and experiments with majoun. Bowles finds a small house for sale in the upper medina of Tangier and with the help of Oliver Smith, he buys it for $500. Obtaining the title to the house takes two more years. During the fall of 1947, Paul Bowles meets Ahmed ben Driss el Yacoubi in F�s, at gatherings held in the home of a professor, Abdessalem Kitiri. In the winter, Bowles travels by train to Oujda, and lives nomadically in the Algerian Sahara, staying in Taghit, Timimoun, Adrar, and finally Algiers.  

1948   Jane Bowles and her friend Cory arrive in Gibraltar on January 31, 1948 and immediately take a boat across the Strait to Tangier. Paul Bowles, who had been in the Sahara, arrives in Tangier to meet her two days later. Almost immediately, Paul, Jane, Cory and Edwin Denby travel to Fez where he continues writing The Sheltering Sky. Jane Bowles meets Ahmed Yacoubi in Fez and and gets him interested in painting. Paul begins work on a second Lorca opera, Yerma. Paul and Jane Bowles live at El Farhar on the Old Mountain in Tangier, where the young writer Truman Capote and his friend Jack Dunphy are also staying. Jane and Paul Bowles meet David Herbert, and he invites them to stay at his Tangier home for six weeks.

Paul Bowles finishes writing The Sheltering Sky. Paul Bowles introduces Jane Bowles to Cherifa, a country woman, who works in the grain market near the bottom of the Grand H�tel Villa de France. At the end of May, Oliver Smith arrives for a vacation in Morocco, but he becomes sick and is bed-ridden for several weeks. In mid-June Libby Holman and Christopher Reynolds, her sixteen-year-old son, arrive in Tangier and Paul accompanies them on a trip to the far south of Morocco. Paul is summoned to New York by Tennessee Williams to write the music for Summer and Smoke, and he departs Tangier on July 18, 1948, leaving Jane at the Grand H�tel Villa de France. Paul Bowles' short story "At Paso Rojo" is published by Mademoiselle magazine in September 1948.

1949    At the beginning of January 1949, Tennessee Williams arrives in Tangier for a short visit, staying at the El Farhar on the Old Mountain, then departs Tangier for Italy. Later that month, Paul travels to Fez and then goes to Marrakech to rendezvous with Jane. Paul and Jane Bowles spend February, March and part of April in the Algerian Sahara, staying in the isolated desert oasis of Taghit, surrounded by spectacular dunes. In Taghit, he writes short stories and she writes "A Stick of Green Candy". Paul Bowles travels to Paris in late April for Gold and Fizdale's performance of his Concerto for Two Pianos. At the time, Paris is filled with American expatriates: Aaron Copland, Ned Rorem, Tennessee Williams, Truman Capote and Gore Vidal. Hearing Bowles talk favorably about Tangier, both Gore Vidal and Truman Capote, along with Jack Dunphy, Capote's companion, decide to travel to Tangier. In July, Bowles composes Night Waltz.

Doubleday rejects Paul Bowles's manuscript of The Sheltering Sky, claiming it isn't a novel, but after making some revisions, John Lehmann in London enthusiastically publishes the book in September. New Directions in New York publishes the first American edition of The Sheltering Sky in October 1949.

In Tangier in the fall of 1949, David Herbert invites Jane and Paul Bowles to accompany him on a motoring trip. Paul, Jane and David Herbert board the SS Koutoubia, bound for Marseilles. After touring France in Herbert's Jaguar, they arrive in Paris, where Paul introduces Jane Bowles to Alice B. Toklas. By late November they arrive at the Herbert family's palatial ancestral home, Wilton House, near Salisbury, England. Here Paul Bowles first views photographs of Taprobane island, where the Herbert family had stayed in the mid-1930s. Intrigued, Paul Bowles decides to visit the tiny island, and with the help of John Lehmann, he finds passage the first week of December 1949 on a Polish Freighter, the General Walter, from Antwerp, through the Red Sea, to Djibouti and eventually arrives in Colombo, Ceylon. He looks at Taprobane island but does not yet have the money to buy it. During this trip, in December, The Sheltering Sky makes the New York Times best-seller list and the British Evening Standard chooses it as a book of the month.

1950     Jane Bowles spends the winter in Paris, staying at the H�tel l'Universit� on rue du Bac on the Left Bank, where she continues to work on work on "Out in the World" and the ending to In the Summer House. Paul Bowles travels for several months in southern India and Ceylon and on April 25, 1950, he sails from Ceylon to London and proceeds to Paris to see Jane, who is still in France. In Paris, Paul and Jane Bowles again meet painter Brion Gysin and invite him to Tangier. Jane Bowles leaves Paris and travels to New York to see about a possible production of In the Summer House, but it proves to be a false alarm. In late spring, Paul Bowles leaves Paris and goes to M�laga, Spain to meet Libby Holman and they travel around Andaluc�a for one month. Paul Bowles shows Holman the Moroccan cities of Tangier and Fez. Shortly after leaving Morocco, Libby Holman receives word that her son, Christopher Reynolds, had been in a mountain climbing accident in California. Paul Bowles's The Delicate Prey and Other Stories is published.

In July 1950, Brion Gysin arrives in Tangier, staying as an invited guest in Bowles' small house in the upper medina near Place Amrah. At the suggestion of Gysin, Bowles buys a black Jaguar convertible automobile and hires Mohammed Temsamany as his chauffeur for the Jaguar, providing Temsamany with a tailor-made uniform. Bowles and Gysin, with Temsamany driving, depart Tangier on a four-month trip through southern Morocco. During this trip, they stop at Sidi Kacem, located on the Atlantic outside of Tangier, to attend a moussem (festival gathering) where a group of Sufi Moroccan trance musicians from the small village of Jajouka are playing. Brion Gysin's first encounter with the music of Jajouka was in Sidi Kacem on this trip with Paul Bowles, not in Jajouka. Gysin immediately becomes obsessed with this music. After arriving in Fez, Bowles renews his friendship with the Moroccan artist Ahmed Yacoubi. Brian Gysin and Paul Bowles continue their journey to the Sahara of Morocco and into Algeria. Bowles works on Let It Come Down during this trip.

1951   In late January 1951, Jane Bowles is photographed by Carl Van Vechten. In July 1951, Paul moves to Chaouen to write, followed by a stay at the Palais Jama� in Fez in November. By December he and Ahmed Yacoubi share a hotel in Tetou�n, where Bowles continues writing Let It Come Down, which he finishes in Tangier.

1952    In January 1952 Jane Bowles travels to New York for the production of her play In the Summer House. Paul Bowles sails with Ahmed Yacoubi first to Bombay, India, and later Ceylon, where they visit Taprobane island, off the southern coast.

Paul Bowles introduces the young Moroccan artist Ahmed Yacoubi to the painter Francis Bacon, who teaches Yacoubi oil painting techniques at his studio in the kasbah of Tangier.

In June, Bowles and Yacoubi visit the Italian Alps and Peggy Guggenheim invites them stay at her palazzo in Venice, Italy. Let It Come Down is published by John Lehmann in London. Paul Bowles returns to Tangier and in November 1952 he travels to Madrid with Ahmed Yacoubi, where he transfers about $5,000 for the purchase of Taprobane island and attends an exhibition of Yacoubi's smaller paintings at the Galer�a Clan.

1953    In January 1953 Paul Bowles and Ahmed Yacoubi sail to New York, where they spend most of the winter with Libby Holman at Treetops, her sprawling estate in Connecticut. In New York, Libby Holman introduces Yacoubi to people in the caf� society crowd, and she announces to Paul that she is in love with Yacoubi. On May 1, Paul Bowles sails home to Tangier, leaving Yacoubi with Libby Holman, but her affair with Yacoubi lasts less than three months, and Yacoubi returns to Tangier. Bowles composes A Picnic Cantata for Gold and Fizdale, (text by James Schuyler) for four women's voices, two pianos and percussion. In December 1953, Paul Bowles sails again to New York to write the score for Jane Bowles's play In the Summer House.

1954    The Beat writer William Burroughs arrives in Tangier, and finds it "difficult to contact" Paul Bowles, but they eventually meet and and become friends; for two years Bowles sees Burroughs often. Paul Bowles introduces William Burroughs to Brion Gysin. In May 1954, Jane Bowles returns to Tangier and moves into the small house on Place Amrah with Cherifa. Paul rents a house on the cliffs on Rue Sidi Bouknadel. In May, Paul Bowles and Ahmed Yacoubi travel to Rome, Italy, where for most of the summer Bowles and Tennessee Williams co-write the script for Luchino Visconti's film Senso. Bowles and Yacoubi visit Istanbul, Turkey in July, and then return to Morocco with Tennessee Williams. In the autumn Paul Bowles arranges for a showing of Ahmed Yacoubi's art at the Galer�a Provensa in Tangier. In late December, Paul and Jane Bowles travel with Mohammed Temsamany and Ahmed Yacoubi on the SS Orsova to Colombo, Ceylon, and then by train to Weligama and eventually to Taprobane island. Peggy Guggenheim visits Taprobane.

1955     In February, after spending only two months on Taprobane, Jane Bowles and Temsamany return to Tangier. In March 1955 Paul Bowles finishes his novel The Spider's House while on Taprobane island; it is published by Random House in November. In April 1955 Paul Bowles and Ahmed Yacoubi depart Ceylon, bound for Singapore, Malaysia, Hong Kong and Japan. In the fall of 1955 Christopher Isherwood visits Tangier.

1956    Paul Bowles transfers the ownership of the house on Place Amrah in the upper medina to Cherifa. On March 2, 1956, Morocco becomes an independent nation. Jane Bowles and Cherifa move into a penthouse apartment in the Edificio San Francisco at Plaza de Navarra, overlooking the Spanish Consulate. During the time Jane Bowles lives here she walks up and down the stairs, fearing the claustrophobic elevator. Paul Bowles and Ahmed Yacoubi move into an adjacent penthouse, apartment 33. Paul Bowles begins recording and transcribing tales by Ahmed Yacoubi. In mid-May 1956, Paul Bowles' mother and father arrive for a nine weeks visit to Tangier, and they also visit Chefchaouen. Paul Bowles returns to Ceylon, accompanied by Yacoubi, determined to sell Taprobane island. He sells the island to Shaun Mandy, an Irishman who was the editor of the Illustrated Weekly of India, but Bowles was unable to get his rupees out of the country.

On October 29, 1956 the International Zone of Tangier ends, and it is formally ceded to Moroccan rule. (The zone was established on December 18, 1923, with the signing, in Paris, of the Statute of the Tangier Zone. For more than three decades the Tangier zone was administered and governed jointly by the United Kingdom (Great Britain), Spain, Belgium, Holland, the United States of America, Portugal, Sweden, the Soviet Union, and Italy.)

1957    In the spring of 1957, Allen Ginsberg arrives in Tangier for the first time, while Paul is still in Ceylon. Ginsberg is snubbed by Jane Bowles. Upon his return to Tangier, Paul Bowles invites Ginsberg and his friends over. Paul Bowles and Yacoubi visit Kenya, where Bowles writes an article on the country for the Nation magazine; they also visit Zanzibar. While Paul Bowles is en route from Ceylon to Tangier with Ahmed Yacoubi, in Las Palmas in the Canary Islands, after a stopover in Cape Town, South Africa, he receives a telegram from Gordon Sager informing that Jane Bowles had suffered a mild stroke on April 4, 1957. Paul takes Jane Bowles to England for treatments in August 1957, where she is admitted to the Radcliffe Infirmary in Oxford and later moved to Saint Andrew's hospital in Northampton. In late November 1957, Paul, Jane and Ahmed return to Tangier. The following day Yacoubi is accused of allegedly seducing a German youth and is confined in the jail in Tangier's kasbah. (This is a period of local governmental persecution of expatriates living in Tangier and the Moroccans who associated with them.)

1958   In advance of leaving Tangier, Paul Bowles transfers ownership of his Jaguar convertible to Mohammed Temsamany, his chauffeur, and Temsamany sells the car and moves to Germany to work. In early February 1958, Paul and Jane Bowles fly from Tangier to Lisbon, Portugal, where they board a boat for Funchal in the Madeira Islands, spending one month there. In mid-April, Jane Bowles returns to New York to have her passport renewed, and she has speech therapy at Lenox Hill Hospital in Manhattan. Paul Bowles remains in Portugal, staying almost two months in a pension on the beach in Costa da Caparica. Later, he and Maurice Grosser decide to rent a house in Albufeira, Portugal, but don't move in, as Paul is summoned to New York by Libby Holman to work on Yerma. On May 14, 1958, Yacoubi is acquitted of the charges against him and released from jail in Tangier. Paul Bowles and Libby Holman go to Denver for the July 29th Denver University premiere of Yerma, directed by Angna Enters. In September Paul Bowles travels to Hollywood, at the request of Jos� Ferrer, to write a score for Edwin Booth. While in California he is sketched by Don Bachardy and visits Christopher Isherwood.

Paul Bowles returns to New York, and Jane Bowles is hospitalized for three months at Cornell Medical Center in White Plains at the beginning of October. Paul and Jane sail to Algeciras, Spain and arrive back in Tangier near the end of December 1958. Ahmed Yacoubi is now living with an American girl in Tangier. 

1959    In mid-February 1959, Paul Bowles returns to New York to write music for the Tennessee Williams play Sweet Bird of Youth. He stays at Libby Holman's townhouse in Manhattan and also entertains Allen Ginsberg, Gregory Corso and Peter Orlovsky. The play premiers on Broadway on March 10, 1959, with the lead roles played by Paul Newman and Geraldine Page, and receives favorable reviews. While in New York, Paul Bowles receives a Rockefeller Grant for $6,800 to record Moroccan indigenous music. In May he travels to the island of Madeira, off the coast of Portugal, to write a travel piece for Holiday magazine. Beginning in July 1959, Paul Bowles travels with Christopher Wanklyn to record indigenous Moroccan music in various regions of Morocco. Their guide and interpreter was Mohammed Larbi Djilali, who helped negotiate arrangements with various ca�ds and musicians. The recording expeditions covered about 40,000 kilometers (25,000 miles) in Morocco, from Goulimine and the Anti-Atlas range to the Rif Mountains, and Zagora on the edge of the Sahara. The tape recordings and other documentation and accompanying photographs were then sent to the Library of Congress in Washington, D.C. , for its permanent collection in the Archive of Folk Culture.

1960    Paul and Jane Bowles move from their penthouse apartments in the Edificio San Francisco into a recently completed apartment building nearby—the Immeuble Itesa, taking separate apartments on the third and fourth floors. Jane Bowles and Cherifa share one apartment, with Cherifa having the larger bedroom for herself, and a Spanish cook and a maid sleep in the living room. Paul and Jane Bowles first meet Mohammed Mrabet [Mohammed ben Chaib el Hajjam], who is working on floors in Immeuble Itesa.

1961    Ned Rorem spends a month in Tangier, visiting Paul and Jane Bowles often. In early April 1961, the Beat writers Allen Ginsberg, Peter Orlovsky and Gregory Corso return to Tangier and stay at the Villa Muniria. Later Bowles and Ginsberg travel to Marrakech and stay in Christopher Wanklyn's house.

1962    Paul Bowles meets Larbi Layachi, who is a watchman at a Merkala beach caf�, and begins translating his stories. In early June 1962, the British writer Alan Sillitoe and his wife, poet Ruth Fainlight move to Tangier, where the soon become friends and neighbors of Paul Bowles in the Immeuble Itesa. In July, Tennessee Williams visits Paul and Jane Bowles in Tangier. John Hopkins and Joseph A. McPhillips III arrive in Tangier and soon become friends of Jane and Paul Bowles. In November, Jane and Paul Bowles fly to the United States, where Paul Bowles visits his parents in Gulfport, Florida, and Jane Bowles visits her parents in Miami, Florida. Jane Bowles returns to Tangier in December; Paul Bowles remains in New York to write the music for Tennessee William's play The Milk Train Doesn't Stop Here Anymore. While in New York, Paul and Jane Bowles meet Alfred Chester at a dinner party, and Paul suggests to Chester that he move to Tangier.

1963    Paul Bowles returns to Tangier in January 1963. At the beginning of May, Paul Bowles moves into his summer house directly on the ocean in the medina of Asilah, Morocco. [Asilah is the model for the town Cabeza de Lobo in Tennessee Williams's play Suddenly Last Summer.] In Asilah, Larbi Layachi (Driss ben Hamed Charhadi) collaborates with Paul Bowles on the translation of A Life Full of Holes. Jane Bowles comes for frequent visits from Tangier, and she and Paul spend much time with the writers Alfred Chester and Norman Glass who are both living in Asilah. The photographer Robert Freson makes photographs of Paul and Jane Bowles and other literary figures in Tangier and Asilah. Paul Bowles begins writing Up Above the World. In the summer William Burroughs arrives back in Tangier, accompanied by Ian Somerville and Michael Portman. They are photographed at the Villa Muniria with Paul Bowles.

1964    In the spring Bowles rents a house on the Old Mountain in Tangier, set on twenty-four acres of land, surrounded by eucalyptus trees, and by November he finishes writing Up Above the World. In November 1964, the Rolling Stones first arrive in Tangier, before proceeding to Marrakech. In December 1964, Paul Bowles arranges transatlantic passage for Larbi Layachi to travel to America with William Burroughs and Brion Gysin.

1965    Jane Bowles's novel Two Serious Ladies is published in England. In January 1965 Paul Bowles learns his father suffered a cerebral hemorrhage. In April 1965, he and Jane sail to New York and Paul visits his father and mother, now living in Gulfport, Florida. In early May Paul Bowles travels to Santa Fe, New Mexico to visit John Goodwin. In June, Paul and Jane Bowles return to Tangier. Up Above the World is rejected for publication by Random House as being too "nihilistic" in outlook. Paul Bowles begins his first collaboration with Mohammed Mrabet and translates Love with a Few Hairs. Novelist Susan Sontag visits Tangier for several weeks and sees Alfred Chester and Paul Bowles. 

1966    Paul Bowles's Up Above the World is published by Simon and Schuster on March 15, 1966. Bowles writes music for American School of Tangier production of Oedipus the King, which is presented in May. Paul Bowles' mother dies in Florida in June 1966, and his father dies three days later. On July 9, Paul and Jane Bowles depart for New York, where she stays while Paul is in the Far East. On July 28, Paul Bowles sails from New York to Bangkok, Thailand―via Panama, Los Angeles, San Francisco and Manila. He is to write a book, which never materializes, about the city of Bangkok. Jane Bowles travels to Florida to visit her mother, and in late August she returns to Tangier.

1967    On January 20, 1967 Paul Bowles sailed from Bangkok, making side-trips to Malaysia and Singapore; after a stop in Genoa, and Algeciras, he arrived in Tangier on March 1st. In early April, Paul took Jane Bowles to a psychiatric clinic in M�laga and brought her back to Tangier in July. Wrote music for the  American School of Tangier production of "The Garden" at the request of Joseph McPhillips, headmaster, who had written him in Chiang Mai, Thailand. British edition of Up Above the World is published by Peter Owen, London. On September 7, 1967, Paul Bowles sailed from Algeciras to New York, where he gave a reading at the Gotham Book Mart at the request of Andreas Brown.

1968    In January, Jane Bowles undergoes electroshock therapy in M�laga; in June, Paul takes Jane Bowles to a pension run by Americans in Granada, and later moves her to the Clinica de los Angeles in the hills outside Malaga. In September 1968 Paul Bowles begins one semester of lectures for a creative writing course at San Fernando Valley State College in Northridge, California. During this period he meets writer Gavin Lambert at the Santa Monica home of Don Bachardy and Christopher Isherwood, where Bowles often dines. Meets Daniel Halpern in California.

1969    In January Bowles finishes his lectures at San Fernando Valley State College. In New York, Aaron Copland introduces Paul Bowles to Phillip Ramey at a party on lower Fifth Avenue. In February 1969 he brings Jane Bowles back to Tangier, against the advice of her doctors. After four months in Tangier, Jane Bowles returns to the Clinica de Los Angeles in M�laga, Spain― due to her declining health, Jane Bowles never returns to Tangier.

Paul Bowles writes music for American School of Tangier production of The Bacchae, presented in May. Paul Bowles and Daniel Halpern, who is now Bowles's neighbor living in Jane Bowles' apartment in the Immeuble Itesa while she is in a clinic in Spain, co-found the literary journal Antaeus. In November 1969, Paul Bowles begins work with the filmmaker Gary Conklin on a documentary about his life, and they make various trips throughout Morocco. In December 1969 the pianists Arthur Gold and Robert Fizdale visit Paul Bowles in Tangier. Peggy Guggenheim visits Paul Bowles in late-December 1969.

1970    In January 1970 Paul Bowles travels throughout Morocco with filmmaker Gary Conklin after they finish work on the documentary subsequently titled Paul Bowles in Morocco.

1972    In January 1972, Peter Owen in London publishes Paul Bowles's autobiography Without Stopping. On March 25, 1972, G. P. Putnam's Sons in New York publishes Without Stopping: An Autobiography, for which Paul Bowles receives an advance fee of $15,000.

1973    Paul Bowles is summoned to M�laga as Jane Bowles's condition has taken a turn for the worse: she is blind and in a coma. On May 4, 1973, Jane Bowles dies at the Cl�nica de los Angeles in M�laga, Spain.

Paul Bowles meets Claude Nathalie Thomas at a dinner party in Tangier.

1976    Bowles composes Cross Country for two pianos.

1977    In March and April, Millicent Dillon is in Tangier to research her biography of Jane Bowles. Dillon conducts interviews with Paul Bowles, Lily at the Parade Bar and Mohammed Mrabet.

1978    Paul Bowles composes music for American School of Tangier production of Orestes, presented in May. Composes music for a December production of Caligula, also presented by the American School.

1979    In June 1979, Paul Bowles attends the wedding of John Hopkins and Ellen-Ann Ragsdale at Tangier's Saint Andrew's Church.

1980    During the summer Paul Bowles teaches a six-week writers' workshop at the American School of Tangier for the New York School of Visual Arts. One notable student he works with is the Spanish-speaking Guatemalan writer Rodrigo Rey Rosa; Bowles translates several of Rey Rosa's short stories.

1984    Composes music for "Camp Cataract" and "A Quarrelling Pair" by Jane Bowles for productions at the American School of Tangier, presented in June.

1985    Ahmed Yacoubi dies in New York City on December 25th.

1989    Bernardo Bertolucci produces a film in Morocco, adapted from The Sheltering Sky, in which Bowles appears and does voice-overs. The lead actors are Debra Winger and John Malkovich and the music is composed by Richard Horowitz.

On June 17, 1989, The Rolling Stones―Mick Jagger, Ron Wood and Keith Richard―arrive in Tangier for three days of recording sessions with The Master Musicians of Jajouka led by Bachir Attar. Paul Bowles attends a recording session in the Palais Ben Abbou in the kasbah, while simultaneously a film crew from BBC Television films the documentary The Rolling Stones in Morocco, that includes footage of Mick Jagger arriving in Tangier, recording with the Master Musicians of Jajouka led by Bachir Attar and talking with Paul Bowles in his apartment of travelling to the village of Jajouka to talk with Bachir Attar.

On August 19, 1989, Paul Bowles attends Malcolm Forbes' $2.5 million 70th  birthday party extravaganza for 800 invited guests held at Forbes' Tangier residence, Palais Mendoub on the Marshan. At this party Bowles dines in a tent, seated at a table next to that of Malcolm Forbes and his two sons, the actress Elizabeth Taylor and the Crown Prince of Morocco. Entertainment was provided by 600 Moroccan drummers and dancers and 300 Berber horsemen, and the bash culminates in a spectacular display of fireworks.

1990    Paul Bowles travels to Paris for the world premiere of Bernardo Bertolucci's film version of his novel The Sheltering Sky. Peter Owen in England publishes Two Years Beside the Strait: Tangier Journal, 1987-9.

1991    The Ecco Press publishes Days: Tangier Journal, 1987-1989. On March 26, 1991, Paul Bowles was named the winner of the $25,000 Rea Award for the Short Story. The award, given annually since 1986 by the Dungannon Foundation, honors a living American writer who has made a significant contribution to the short story as an art form.

1992    Bowles composes music for Hippolytus presented in June at the American School of Tangier.

1993    Bowles composes music for Salom� presented in June at the American School of Tangier. In June 1993, Paul Bowles attends a concert of his music in Madrid, Spain, accompanied by Phillip Ramey: Music for a Farce, Concerto for Two Pianos, Winds, and Percussion. Filmmakers Regina Weinreich and Catherine Warnow come to Tangier to work with Bowles on the documentary Paul Bowles: the Complete Outsider.

1994    In May, Paul Bowles attends a concert of his music in Paris of Concerto, Songs, and Night Waltz.

1995    In September 1995, Paul Bowles returns to New York to attend a three-day festival of his music in New York, accompanied by Phillip Ramey. The Paul Bowles Festival was organized by Jonathan Sheffer, the founder and conductor of the EOS Orchestra. This celebration also included a Symposium held at the New School for Social Research. On September 19, 1995, Bowles attends a concert at Alice Tully Hall of his own music, which includes Pastorela, Concerto for Two Pianos and Orchestra, and the song suite Secret Words, performed by the EOS Ensemble. Paul Bowles sees the Beat Generation writers William S. Burroughs and Allen Ginsberg for the last time at a meeting held in his suite at the Mayfair Hotel at 64th and Park Avenue in Manhattan. Paul Bowles works with German filmmakers Frieder Schlaich and Irene von Alberti on a film of three of his short stories, with Bowles providing narration.

1997    Composes music for production of The Royal Hunt of the Sun presented in June by the American School of Tangier. Begins a collaboration with photographer Cherie Nutting on the book Yesterday's Perfume: An Intimate Memoir of Paul Bowles. In June 1997, Paul Bowles and the poet, singer and writer Patti Smith are photographed by Tim Richmond for the German edition of Vogue magazine.

1998    Works with the Canadian filmmaker Jennifer Baichwal on her documentary film Let It Come Down: the Life of Paul Bowles.

1999    Owsley Brown III makes the documentary film on Paul Bowles's music: Night Waltz: the Music of Paul Bowles.

In October 1999, a new grave site and monument for Jane Bowles is dedicated in the San Miguel Cemetery in M�laga, Spain (located at plot: F-453).

On the morning of November 18, 1999, Paul Bowles dies of heart failure at the Italian Hospital in Tangier, Morocco, at the age of 88. Radio and television, other news media and wire services from around the world make announcements, and the following day major newspapers carry obituaries of his death. His body was shipped to Casablanca and flown to New York for cremation and storage at the Frank Campbell Funeral Home in Manhattan.

2000    On February 14, 2000, a Memorial for Paul Bowles was held at the Palais du Marshan in Tangier, with talks given by Joseph A. McPhillips III, Rodrigo Rey Rosa, Claude Nathalie Thomas, John Hopkins, Virginia Spencer Carr and Abdelaziz Jadir.

On October 29, 2000, a Memorial luncheon was held at the "92nd Street Y" in New York hosted by Virginia Spencer Carr, followed by another Memorial for Paul Bowles, also held at the "92nd Street Y" in New York, with a concert of Bowles works by Jonathan Sheffer's EOS Orchestra, talks by the actress Debra Winger (who played the role of Kit in Bernardo Bertolucci's film version of The Sheltering Sky), bibliographer Jeffrey Miller, biographer Millicent Dillon, and biographer Virginia Spencer Carr. Excerpts from the documentary film Let It Come Down: the Life of Paul Bowles by Jennifer Baichwal were shown to the audience.

At noon on November 1, 2000, Joseph A. McPhillips III, laid Paul Bowles' cremated remains to rest, nearly one year after his death in Tangier, Morocco, next to the graves of his parents and grandparents in the family plot at Lakemont Cemetery in the rural town of Lakemont, New York. The short funeral service was attended by friends, and a post-funeral luncheon was held at the Glenora Inn, during which a tape-recording was played of Paul Bowles reading his poem "Here I Am".


Paul Bowles Chronology: Part One (1910-1946)

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